Recent Study Uncovers The Mystery of The Ostrich Penis

The penis of an ostrich does not require blood for erection Most species of bird copulate by touching together their cloaca, openings that facilitate both mating and excretion. Ducks, geese, swans, flamingos, ostriches, kiwis and emus are different; they all have penises that swell to erection. For most of them, the erection is produced by lymph fluid, but the ostrich has long been believed to have blood erections just like humans. Now scientists finally know for sure.

It all began with some 19th century data, suggesting that ostriches have a blood vascular erection mechanism, like humans. Until a recent study, published in the Journal of Zoology by Dr. Richard Prum of Yale University and Dr. Patricia Brennan of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, no research had been performed to suggest otherwise. So, Dr. Prum and Dr. Brennan set out to learn the truth. They obtained the carcasses of one ostrich and three emus and dissected the penises.

What they found was that both species of bird have spongy organs at the base of the penis, known as paralymphatic bodies, making them no different from all other studied species of birds. In other words: ostriches and emus have the lymph fluid based erections common to birds, rather than the blood vascular erections of reptiles and mammals.

Ostriches do have blood vessels in the penis, which is why they are pink and why one might think they contain blood, but these are small surface vessels that are unable to aid them in maintaining erections. Another reason why scientists believed that ostriches have blood vascular erections was the apparent rigidity of their erections, so unlike most bird species. Professor Tim Birkhead, an ornithological reproduction expert of the University of Sheffield, explained that according to Dr. Brennan’s and Dr. Prum’s findings “ostriches and rheas appear to have additional muscles that help to maintain a rigid phallus.”

Since all known phallus endowed birds have lymph erections, Dr. Brennan suggests that “the lymphatic erection mechanism evolved in the ancestor of birds” at least 130 million years ago as it separated from the reptiles and mammal-like reptiles which had blood vascular erection mechanisms.

The question now is, why would it be evolutionarily beneficial to have very short-lived erections? The answer, should they find it, may have some interesting implications for mammals as well, not the least for humans and the prevalence of premature ejaculations.

Testosterone Helps Older Men Retain Their Muscle Mass

Testosterone helps reduce loss of lean body mass Testosterone is a pivotal sex hormone that performs multiple functions throughout the human male lifecycle. Apart from being a major determinant of male sexuality, testosterone has now emerged as an indicator of a primary symptom of old age among men, i.e., loss of muscle mass. If the results of the latest study on the impact of testosterone on older men are to be believed, the higher testosterone levels among older men help in retaining their muscle mass and body strength.

While the causes of lean body mass loss are traditionally attributed to lack of dietary discipline and physical exercise, the hormonal imbalances were always suspected to play an important role in the events leading up to loss of strength in the muscles.

Aging men tend to lose more muscle mass and strength in arms and legs than women. This clearly implies that the sex hormone in men discreetly plays a role in determining the strength and muscle mass among older men.

A recent study involving 1,183 men aged 65 and older concluded that the amount of testosterone in the body determines the quantum of loss of muscle strength and mass as men grow older. The results of the study were published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

While we have grown up with the belief that loss of muscle strength with age is natural and should be accepted without questioning the rationale, the new findings will certainly open up new vistas for the researchers to further delve into the treatment aspect of weakened muscle strength in seniors. Perhaps, the next step should be to manufacture and test new medicines comprising testosterone supplements for their efficacy in preventing loss of muscle mass. Although hormone replacement therapy is not a foolproof treatment option, yet the latest studies have brought in a ray of hope for older men suffering from stability issues and limb weakness.

Stents Proved Effective for Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

Arterial stents proven to help treat erectile dysfunction For long, millions of men have suffered at the cruel hands of erectile dysfunction (ED), which embarrasses them at a time when they are naturally expected to ooze confidence. The worse part of it starts when the treatment proves ineffective. Several ED drugs that may be successful in most cases fail when the problem is due to clogged arteries leading up to the penis.

Medtronic Inc, a Minnesota-based company that specializes in the development and manufacture of pacemakers, heart stents as well as surgical products, has come up with a gadget that can effectively deal with erectile dysfunction.

Medtronic confirmed that it has finished the first feasibility study which was done by studying a total of 30 men who had an average age of 60 years. All the men in this study were being affected by ED. Within a period of three months into the study, the company stated that the results they were getting were quite positive.

This revolutionary medical device is known as a stent, which is a small wire mesh tube – quite the same as the one used to open up blocked heart arteries. It is inserted inside the internal pudendal artery whose main function is to supply blood to the penis. A catheter is used to deliver the stent, which is placed in the pudendal artery. The artery gets de-clogged resulting in better blood flow through it to the penis.

Stents can be the answer for difficult cases where the diagnosis shows clogged penile arteries as the reason for ED. The blockage will simply not allow sufficient blood flow to the penis resulting in fragile erection.

Dr. Jason Rogers of UC Medical Center and a researcher of this Medtronic-sponsored trial commented that ED is basically a vascular disease and this is the main reason why the company has so much interest in it.

It has been estimated that there are about 30 million men in the United States who are suffering from ED, and about 300 million across the world.

Rogers also said that about 50 percent of men suffering from ED stopped drug therapy which included Viagra, Levitra and Cialis as a result of them not working, or developing intolerable side effects which included low blood pressure.

Cialis Receives FDA Approval to Treat Enlarged Prostate Symptoms

Cialis gets FDA clearance for prostate enlargement treatment About half of men over 50 have some form of prostate disease. The condition generally occurs due to enlarged size of the prostate gland. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Eli Lily’s Cialis to treat enlarged prostate, a condition medically known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Until now, Cialis (generic: tadalafil) has been used to manage impotence or erectile dysfunction in men. This is the ninth drug that has been approved by the FDA to help men with BPH.

The exact cause for BPH is unknown, but age and genetics play an important role in the occurrence of the disease. Many enlarged prostate patients do not have any symptoms while others may experience painful and frequent urination, incontinence and urinary retention. “BPH can have a big impact on a patient’s quality of life,” Scott Monroe, director of the FDA’s division of reproductive and urologic products, told Fox News. “Cialis offers these men another treatment option, particularly those who also have ED (erectile dysfunction), which is also common in older men.”

The FDA evaluated two different clinical trials involving Cialis and men with BPH, and found that the drug led to significant improvement in symptoms. A third trial involving men with BPH and erectile dysfunction showed similar results.

How to Use?

Cialis relaxes the muscles of the prostate and increases blood flow to the organ. The drug is available as tablets and may be taken before or after meals. Two dosing options are available – Cialis for daily use and 36-hour Cialis. The dosing schedule varies, depending on your age and overall health. Your doctor may help establish a regimen that is right for you. It is best if you take your entire dose at the same time each day, says the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Try to avoid alcohol and grapefruit juice while taking Cialis as it may lead to potentially dangerous side effects.

Side Effects

Other side effects associated with Cialis include headache, indigestion, nausea, vomiting and pain in stomach, muscles, arms or legs. Most of these problems subside within 48 hours of starting the treatment. However, you must talk to a doctor right away if the symptoms worsen or if you experience other problems such as blurred vision, loss of hearing, erection that lasts longer than 4 hours, rash or chest pain.

Men taking nitrates such as nitroglycerin should not take Cialis as it may lead to unsafe drop in blood pressure, according to an FDA warning published in the US News and World Report. Cialis may also interfere with certain antifungal and antidepressant medications, and with antibiotics such as erythromycin and clarithromycin. So, inform your doctor about any other medications you might be taking, or if you have a history of heart disease and stroke.

The 5 milligram pills of Cialis, which have been approved by the FDA for treating prostate enlargement, are available at Drugstore.com for $134.00. The manufacturer has no plans of making it an over-the-counter drug, nor do they anticipate any generic versions of the medication anytime soon, as patents will protect the drug until 2017.

Breaking Your Woman’s Heart May Break Your Penis!

Penile fracture occurs when the tunica albuginea is torn According to an interesting new study published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, extramarital affairs and other sex that happens in uncommon circumstances may increase a man’s risk of suffering a penile fracture, also known as a “broken penis.”

The groundbreaking study led by Dr. Andrew Kramer, a urologist and researcher at the University of Maryland Medical Center, found that men who have had penile fractures had typically been engaging in unconventional sex acts, or sex in unusual locations such as restrooms or on the job, at the time of the accident.

The study also highlighted the fact that the majority of the injuries were suffered during sex outside of marriage. Dr. Kramer suggested that such sexual encounters may be hurried, unfamiliar, or involve awkward sex positions, and he said, “All these factors could make the man less able to protect his penis from an unexpected sudden downward thrust leading to the fracture.”

The penis itself has no bones; the term “broken” refers to the tearing of the tunica albuginea, a fibrous inner membrane which surrounds the corpora cavernosa (spongy tissue chambers inside the shaft of the penis) and provides rigidity when intact.

During sexual arousal, the spongy tissue becomes engorged with blood and rigid. If the erection is subjected to unusual impact or pressure by “missed” thrusts during unconventional sex, the membrane may tear, leading to internal hemorrhaging, swelling, pain, and reduced function.

Penile fractures are treatable through several different types of surgery, and scientists have long understood the underlying mechanism and pathology of these injuries. Yet, Dr. Kramer’s study, conducted at the University of Maryland Hospital, is the first to consider what the men were doing physically at the time of the injury. He focused on 16 cases of broken penis seen by doctors during a six-year period at that hospital and looked carefully at the circumstances of each incident.

Interestingly, his study found that 50% of the patients with penile fractures were engaged in sexual act with someone other than their wife at the time of the accident.

Moreover, most of these accident victims were having sex in unconventional locations such as cars, elevators and bathrooms. According to Dr. Kramer, of the sixteen patients whose cases were reviewed, only three were engaging in normal marital sex when the accident occurred. And, because of the potentially-embarrassing nature of such an incident, he speculated that penile injuries are being under-reported and may be more common than the numbers suggest.

In conclusion, it may be said that sex can be a dangerous sport. Men who seek the thrill of sex in unusual locations and positions, especially sex outside of marriage, run a higher risk of breaking their penises… Men who cheat may break more than their women’s hearts. Still, by being cautious when having sex in bizarre ways and places, men can experience the joy and fulfillment of sex while reducing the chance of breaking their valuable.

Testosterone Levels in Men Drop as They Become Fathers

Low testosterone suppresses the aggressive traits of men to allow them to become caring fathers Lack of testosterone in men may be associated with effeminate behavior and overall sissiness, but scientists have uncovered what may be a shocking new truth about male hormones. As it turns out, low testosterone is a natural part of the male life cycle. And the most virile of men are the ones who lose the most.

These findings were presented as the result of a recent study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on September 12. Six hundred and twenty-four Filipino men participated in the study which lasted over a period of four and a half years. Their testosterone levels were measured using saliva samples both at the beginning and the end of the study period, in both the morning and in the evening.

The research showed that men with high morning levels of the hormone to begin with were more likely to become fathers by the end of the study. But the study also showed that in becoming a father a man’s testosterone levels were on average 26% lower in the morning and 34% lower in the evening compared to his own levels before he became a dad. Normal aging would only produce a 14% drop.

Additionally, men who spent three or more hours per day taking care of their child experienced greater drops in testosterone than the men who were less involved in raising their children. In other words, mere awareness of being a father is not the only cause for the testosterone drop – interaction with one’s child plays a part as well. The greatest drops in testosterone occurred when the child was an infant. Fathers of newborns experienced a median testosterone drop of 50%, which endured until the child was a toddler.

This occurred regardless of the man’s original testosterone level. The study author Lee Gettler, an anthropology PhD candidate at Northwestern University urged that there is an important distinction to be made here. “We did not find that fathers with the lowest testosterone were simply inclined to become caregivers.”

This makes sense since testosterone is closely linked with traits such as strength, aggression and virility, which are important in survival, both purely physical and genetic. Men with high testosterone levels might have a competitive edge in, still evolutionarily primitive, human mating habits. But that is where the competitive edge stops. Aggression and risk-taking are not desirable qualities in a father, so testosterone drops. This has been observed in several species where the males care for their offspring.

So when you notice the men around you mellowing as they become fathers, now you know, it’s simply a matter of hormones.

Men with Longer Ring Finger Have Longer Erect Penises

Ring finger length linked to penile length You know what they say about men with big hands and feet. It is all old wives’ tales, of course. The true measure of a man’s penis is his ring finger. That is what Korean researchers have found in a recently published study of 144 men. It is even true in mice.

This research, the results of which have been published in the Asian Journal of Andrology, was conducted by Gachon University under the leadership of Dr. Tae Beom Kim and involved measuring the fingers and the flaccid as well as the extended penises of 144 anesthetized men.

What the researchers found was that the ratio between ring finger and index finger lengths was indicative of penis size. Men’s index fingers are generally shorter than their ring fingers, so a long ring finger in itself does indicate endowment. The secret is in the ratio. The larger the difference in length between ring finger and index finger, the larger the penis when extended. The team of researchers was working under the assumption that the extended anesthetized penis is equivalent in size to the erect penis.

“Based on this evidence, we suggest that digit ratio can predict adult penile size,” said Dr. Tae Beom Kim in summary of the team’s theory, “and that the effects of prenatal testosterone may in part explain the differences in adult penile length.”

The idea that prenatal testosterone might affect both finger and penis length has been simultaneously explored by another team of researchers. This study, published on September 19 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, focused on mice. Mice are known to have finger ratios similar to humans, which is why they were chosen for this study.

The researchers exposed one group of mouse embryos to high levels of testosterone and another to oestrogen. The mice exposed to male hormones during this crucial developmental phase had proportionally longer fourth digits – that is to say, ring fingers. The mice that were exposed to large quantities of female hormones, on the other hand, developed proportionally small fourth digits. Among humans, like mice, women generally have index and ring fingers of similar length, with the index finger more likely to be longer.

If this still sounds like an old wives’ tale, it should be noted that digit ratio has previously been the subject of numerous studies on sexual development and sexual behavior. Amongst others, one controversial study in 2000 suggested that women with a more typically male ratio were more likely to be lesbian. Another study from 2010 indicated that primate species in which the males generally have smaller index to ring finger ratios are less likely to be monogamous.

Better Cardiovascular Health = Better Erections, and Vice Versa

Erectile dysfunction may be an early warning of heart disease The idea that cardiovascular health is somehow linked to penile health is not exactly news, and that impotence can be an early sign of heart disease is well known, but scientists have found it difficult to pinpoint exactly how the two are linked. Does heart disease cause erectile dysfunction or are they both symptoms of something else? Two newly published meta-studies have tried to find the answer.

One analysis of six studies of a total of 740 men, published on September 12 in the Archives of Internal Medicine, concluded that all of the included studies showed that when men’s cholesterol was improved with the help of exercise and their dieting erectile function improved as well. The analysis also showed that improvements made to known risk factors for cardiovascular health, such as high cholesterol and waist circumference, lead to significant improvements in the bedroom.

Another recent analysis, published on September 20 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, investigated the links between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. This analysis, which covered 12 international studies of a total of 36,744 men, found that men with erectile dysfunction are at increased risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.

The researchers started by establishing what we already knew – that there is indeed a link between impotence and cardiovascular disease. They found that men suffering from erectile dysfunction were 48% more likely to also suffer from cardiovascular disease than men who had no such dysfunction. They were also 46% more likely to have heart disease, 35% more likely to have a stroke, and 19% more likely to die overall. These increased risks remained after the researchers adjusted the figures for other risk factors, such as age, weight, cholesterol, smoking, diabetes and blood pressure.

For the man who is suffering from either erectile dysfunction or cardiovascular disease, however, maybe it isn’t the reason for the link that is important. It is the fact that the two are linked in the first place and that treating one can help treat the other.

“If you help the blood flow in one area, you can help it in another,” said Dr. Stephen Kopecky, the author of one of the studies. He adds that erectile dysfunction may become apparent three to five years before heart problems.

Dr. Thomas A. Pearson of the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry expanded further: “Some men do not seem to be alarmed with unhealthy lifestyles causing heart attack and cancer. The enormous and expensive use of drugs for erectile dysfunction suggests that this might be an important enough issue to motivate them to adopt better lifestyle habits.”

Because erectile dysfunction and heart disease are so closely linked, ignoring erectile dysfunction due can cost a man his life. But on the bright side, it also means that diet and exercise can lead to a better love-life.

Viberect: A Vibrating Gadget for Stronger Erections and Better Orgasms

Viberect helps men with erectile dysfunction get stronger erections For men who have not been helped by popular erectile dysfunction chemicals, or who feel uncomfortable with the reported side-effects, there are not many options. Traditionally, they have been forced to consider a life with impotence, painful vacuum pumps or risky invasive surgery. That is changing, however, as a new prescription vibrator enters the market.

The vibrator is currently being released in the United States under the name Viberect and was developed by the American company Reflexonic, owned and run by urologists. The premise is simple: the vibrator stimulates the nerve endings of the penis and triggers a reflex erection. In this respect the vibrator is no different from any other forum of sexual contact. What makes Viberect more effective than vacuum pumps and manual stimulation, and what negates the use of a cheaper vibrator, however, is the intensity of the vibrations and the dual stimulators.

Viberect is designed rather like a pair of barbecue tongs and each end has a soft vibrating cup. With the help of those cups, the Viberect device can stimulate both sides of the penis equally and thereby maximize the number of affected nerves. This is crucial as nerve damage, caused for example by diabetes or stroke, often plays a huge part in erectile dysfunction. After 7-10 minutes of stimulation, Viberect “provokes and amplifies natural human reflexes and other pathways of penile erection, rigidity, orgasm, and other sexual responses,” says Dr. Kambiz Tajakarimi, urologist and one of the developers of Viberect.

The device will cost about $300 in the US market, which is approximately $500 cheaper than the world’s only other medical vibrator, the Ferticare. The price in Europe is yet to be determined, but sales start later this year.

More pressing than the issue of cost, however, is the issue of stigma. Viberect works by producing individual erections at the moment of use and can as such not be hidden from a partner, unlike long-term erectile dysfunction therapy or an orodispersible pill. There is also no way around it; the Viberect looks distinctly medical, more like something found in a hospital than in a private bedroom.

Reflexonic is hoping to circumvent this problem by making the device incredibly easy to use, even in a dimmed bedroom setting with a partner. There are no buttons to press. Simply grab the device and it will start on its own. It could easily integrate into a couple’s sex life. Yet, Reflexonic stresses that Viberect is not a sex toy and will never be sold as such. It is an erectile dysfunction aid that just happens to be a pleasure to use.

Antioxidants to Treat Infertility and Erectile Dysfunction?


An ABC News Video Talking About Antioxidants and Their Effects on Sexual Health.

Antioxidants have long been celebrated in the alternative medicine and health food industries as the cure for numerous conditions, from aging to infertility, all believed to be caused by oxidation on a cellular level. Now science is catching up and asking the question: are antioxidants a viable treatment for infertility and impotence?

Tony Hagen of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University and Fransesco Visioli from the Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies believe that they are. Hagen and Visioli have studied the existent research and recently published their analysis in Pharmacological Research.

In order to discuss antioxidants as a treatment, it must first be established that oxidation is part of the problem. “If oxidative stress is an underlying factor causing infertility, which we think the evidence points to, we should be able to do something about it,” says Hagen.

He is referring, in particular, to an age-related decline in nitric oxide production resulting in erectile dysfunction. Nitric oxide is a substance that relaxes and dilates blood vessels, including the smooth muscles of the penis which must be relaxed to enable blood flow into the erectile tissue.

It is also known that degenerative diseases linked with erectile dysfunction and infertility problems, such as high blood pressure, congestive heart failure and diabetes, are linked to low nitric oxide production.

Hagen and Visioli believe that antioxidants may reverse such a decline: “The data from laboratory studies is very robust, it all fits. There is evidence this might work, and the potential benefits could be enormous.” Lipoic acid, in particular, is looking very promising due to its sustained impact on vasomotor function and health.

Meanwhile, a research team from the University of Auckland, led by Marian Showell, have reviewed 34 clinical trials of couples undergoing infertility and subfertility treatments. The Auckland-researchers found that women were more than four times more likely to get pregnant if their partners were taking oral antioxidants. They were also five times as likely to experience a live birth.

“When trying to conceive as part of an assisted reproductive program, it may be advisable to encourage men to take oral antioxidant supplements to improve their partners’ chances of becoming pregnant,” Showell says in a press release.

While some men may certainly be helped by taking antioxidants to treat reproductive problems, caution must unfortunately be advised. More research is needed to prove efficacy and excessive consumption could be dangerous.